You would have definitely read in Greek mythology about the nine Muse Goddesses who were responsible for all aspects of science and art. Reportedly born to Zeus the king of the Gods in Greek mythology and Mnemosyne, they embodied all knowledge about the arts particularly music, dance, and literature. The story goes that Osiris a God of Egyptian origin picked up the 9 muses from Ethiopia, the land of Solomon and Sheba. You can trace the physical origin of music to around 500 B.C when the first experiments on acoustics and numbers relating to tones by plucking strings, took place under the watchful eyes of Pythagoras the famed Greek mathematician.
In the middle ages, the Gregorian chant named after Pope Gregory I, involved singing of single line Latin chanting sans instrumentation in the Catholic churches of the day. Over a period, the incantations multiplied when the monks started to compose them by scribbling. The demand for music and composers increased manifold and people wanted to start to listen to different forms of music
Music now started moving outside the church as it was now in great demand. Balance, symmetry and dynamic change directed the composers into giving expression to diverse emotions. The same desire for dynamism drove the musicians to use a piano instead of harpsichord. French nobility now promoted music, the court minstrels appeared with shows of acrobatics, and music in the castles and the town squares. Though considered low-class they were an important source of gossip and news, especially in the conspicuous absence of newspapers at that time. Music passed through the Baroque age with rarely changing the fluid rhythm.
This gave way for the classic composers who brought about radical changes in the pauses, syncopation, and the length of the notes. This classic period made a great impression on the middle class who insisted on public concerts, which soon became a reality. In the Romantic period that followed (1820-1900), the fans easily recognized each composer from his style. In the twentieth century, the composers gave more depth to tone color and sometimes used multiple tones in their compositions.
Today, music has come a long way. It is an intricate blend of harmony, melody, rhythm, timber and silence in a particular configuration. Jacques Attali, in his book "Noise: the political economy of music" claims that music has passed through four unique cultural stages and talks about the "Sonorous event between noise and silence".
Music in all its aspects from definition, creation, and performance, rely on the framework of social and cultural background. Genres and subgenres in music often present thin lines of distinction and people tend to interpret it to their convenience. You can further divide music to art music and folk music, but you can never forget the connection between music and mathematics. Today, you can hear pre-arranged, or improvised or even aleatory compositions. You can hear music in cinema, drama, or recordings of it.